Pengertian Tenses atau Bentuk Waktu

Pengertian Tenses atau Bentuk Waktu Hello readers semua, apakah kalian lagi bingung mau belajar bahasa inggris tapi bingung mau dimulai dari mana? Belajar apanya dulu? Kok kebanyakan di literatur literatur ato di buku-buku malah membingungkan ya? Nah nah adakah yang punya pikiran seperti itu? Tenang permisah eh readers,,, kalian mengunjungi tempat yang tepat. Salah satu hal yang harus kalian ketahui adalah mengenai tenses alias bentuk waktu. Bagian ini merupakan salah satu hal yang dasar dan basic dalam grammar (tata bahasa inggris). Siapkan buku catatan kalian nanti author bisikin di sini. Happy diving here and happy learning english!^_6.

Pengertian Tenses atau bentuk waktu

Tenses sebenarnya tidak lain merupakan bentuk kata kerja yang berubah-ubah sesuai dengan keterangan waktu atau bentuk waktu yang digunakan pada saat itu entah masa lalu (past tense), saat ini (present) dan masa mendatang (future tense).

Lah terus kata kerja yang seperti apa? Apa saja kata kerja itu? Dalam bahasa inggris kata kerja terbagi menjadi kata kerja yang beraturan (reguler verb) dan kata kerja tak beraturan (irreguler verb). Kata kerja (verbs) sendiri adalah kelas kata yang menyatakan suatu keberadaan, tindakan, pengalaman yang biasanya menjadi predikat dalam kalimat atau frasa. Dimengerti?

Tenses sendiri terbagi menjadi 3 bentuk waktu, ada juga yang membagi menjadi empat bentuk waktu dan masing-masing terbagi lagi menjadi 16 bentuk dalam kalimat. Berikut ini uraiannya:

tenses

 

  1. Present tense

Merupakan bentuk waktu sekarang, kejadian berlangsung saat ini. Terbagi menjadi:

  1. Simple present tense.

Bentuk yang paling sederhana dari present tense. Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I dan You

Subject+ Verb + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ do not + Verb + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Do + Subject+ Verb + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We do it well

2) We don’t it well.

3) Do we do it well?

Subject He, she dan is

– Subject+ Verb (-s/-es) + Object/ complement +adverb

Subject+ does not + Verb + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Does + Subject+ Verb + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) He finishes his work late.

2) He doesn’t finish his work late .

3) Does he finish his work late?

2. Present continuos tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I dan You

Subject+ to be (am, are) +V-ing +Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ to be (am, are) + not +V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

To be (am, are) + Subject+ V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We are doing it well

2) We are not (aren’t) doing it well.

3) Are we doing it well?

Subject He, she dan is

Subject+ to be (is) +V-ing +Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ to be (is) + not +V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

To be (is) + Subject+ V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) He is finishing his work late.

2) He is not finishing his work late .

3) Is he finishing his work late?

3. Present Perfect Tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I dan You

Subject+ have + V-3+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ have + not+ V-3+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Have + subject +V-3+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat tanya)

1) We have done it well.

2) We haven’t done it well.

3) Have we done it well?

Subject He, she dan is

Subject+ has + V-3+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ has + not+ V-3+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Have + Subject + V-3+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat tanya)

1) He has finished his work late.

2) He hasn’t finished his work late.

3) Has he finished his work late?

4. Present Perfect Continous Tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I dan You

Subject+ have + been +V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ have + not+ been +V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Have + Subject + been +V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat tanya)

1) We have been doing it well.

2) We haven’t been doing it well.

3) Have we been doing it well?

Subject He, she dan is

Subject+ has + been +V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ has + not+ been +V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Has + Subject + been +V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat tanya)

1) He has been finishing his work late.

2) He hasn’t been finishing his work late.

3) Has he been finishing his work late?

  1. Past tense

Merupakan bentuk waktu masa lalu, kejadian sudah berlangsung masa lalu. Terbagi menjadi:

  1. Simple past tense.

Bentuk yang paling sederhana dari past tense. Pola kalimat untuk bentuk ini tidak melihat subjeknya:

Subjek They, we, I,  You, He, she dan it.

Subject+ V-2 + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ did not + V-1 + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Did + Subject+ V-1 + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We did it well

2) We didn’t do it well.

3) Did we do it well?

2. Past continuos tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I dan You

Subject+ to be (were) +V-ing +Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ to be (were) + not +V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

To be (were) + Subject+ V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We were doing it well yesterday.

2) We were not (weren’t) doing it well yesterday.

3) Were we doing it well yesterday?

Subject He, she dan is

Subject+ to be (was) +V-ing +Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ to be (was) + not +V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

To be (was) + Subject+ V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) He was finishing his work late.

2) He was not finishing his work late .

3) Was he finishing his work late?

3. Past Perfect Tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I, You, He, She dan It.

Subject+ had + V-3+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ had + not+ V-3+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Had + subject +V-3+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat tanya)

1) We had done it well.

2) We hadn’t done it well.

3) Had we done it well?

4. Past Perfect Continous Tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I, You, He, She dan It

Subject+ had + been +V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ had + not+ been +V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Had + Subject + been +V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat tanya)

1) We had been doing it well.

2) We had been doing it well.

3) Had we been doing it well?

  1. Future tense

Merupakan bentuk waktu yang akan datang/ mendatang, kejadian akan berlangsung dan bsia juga sebagai prediksi dan harapan. Terbagi menjadi:

  1. Simple future tense.

Bentuk yang paling sederhana dari future tense. Pola kalimatnya:

Alternatif pertama dengan modal ‘will/ shall’ untuk semua subjek.

Subject+ will/ shall+ Verb + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ will/ shall+not + Verb + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Will/ shall + Subject+ Verb + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We will do it well

2) We will not do it well.

3) Will we do it well?

Alternatif kedua dengan ‘To be (Are, am) going to’ untuk ubjek they, we, i dan You.

– Subject+ To be (Are, am) going to +V-1 +Object/ complement +adverb

Subject+ To be (Are, am) not going to +V-1 + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

To be (Are, am) + Subject+ going to+ V-1 + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) He is going to finish his work late.

2) He isn’t going to finish his work late.

3) Is he going to finish his work late?

2. Future continuos tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I, You, He, She dan It

Subject+ will/ shall+ be+ V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ will/ shall not+ be+ V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Will/ shall + Subject+ be+ V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We will be doing it well

2) We will not (won’t) be doing it well.

3) Will we be doing it well?

3. Future Perfect Tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I, You, He, She dan It

Subject+ will/ shall+ have+ V-3 + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ will/ shall not+ have+ V-3 + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Will/ shall + Subject+ have+ V-3 + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We will have done it well.

2) We will not have done it well.

3) Will we have done it well?

4. Future Perfect Continous Tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I, You, He, She dan It

Subject+ will/ shall+ have+ been+ V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ will/ shall not+ have+ been+ V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

Will/ shall + Subject+ have+ been+ V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We will have been doing it well.

2) We will not have been doing it well.

3) Will we have been doing it well?

4. Past Future tense

Merupakan bentuk waktu yang seharusnya akan terjadi di masa lampau, tetapi karena ada beberapa hal ada yang terlaksana dan ada yang tidak terlaksana, tergantung pernyataan si pembuat kalimat. Terbagi menjadi:

  1. Simple past future tense.

Bentuk yang paling sederhana dari past future tense. Pola kalimatnya:

Alternatif pertama dengan modal ‘should/ would’ untuk semua subjek.

Subject+ should/ would+ Verb + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ should/ would+not + Verb + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

should/ would+ Subject+ Verb + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We would do it well

2) We would not do it well.

3) Would we do it well?

2. Past Future continuos tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I, You, He, She dan It

Subject+ should/ would+ be+ V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ should/ would not+ be+ V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

should/ would+ Subject+ be+ V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We would be doing it well

2) We would not (won’t) be doing it well.

3) Would we be doing it well?

3. Past Future Perfect Tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I, You, He, She dan It

Subject+ should/ would+ have+ V-3 + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ should/ would not+ have+ V-3 + Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

should/ would+ Subject+ have+ V-3 + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We would have done it well.

2) We would not have done it well.

3) Would we have done it well?

4. Past Future Perfect Continous Tense.

Pola kalimatnya:

Subjek They, we, I, You, He, She dan It

Subject+ should/ would+ have+ been+ V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat positif)

Subject+ should/ would not+ have+ been+ V-ing+ Object/ complement +adverb (kalimat negatif)

should/ would+ Subject+ have+ been+ V-ing + Object/ complement +adverb? (kalimat tanya)

1) We would have been doing it well.

2) We would not have been doing it well.

3) Would we have been doing it well?

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